Journal of Palaeosciences <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Palaeosciences (previously published as The Palaeobotanist) is an international journal that has been disseminating knowledge and has served palaeobotanists worldwide for over 60 years with diversified and enhanced quality of content. It is an in-house journal of Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India. Since its inception in the year 1952 many thematic issues, proceeding volumes, and significant contributions have been published. Over the past two decades, the advancement in the techniques used in Palaeosciences, proxies, and software for climate and fossil studies have immensely increased and hence the journal was renamed to Journal of Palaeosciences (2021). Journal of Palaeosciences is published bi-annually.</span></p> en-US (Editor) (Technical Support) Fri, 22 Dec 2023 11:35:58 +0530 OJS 60 XXI INQUA Congress 2023 Rome, Italy: India’s successful bid to host the INQUA Congress in 2027 Binita Phartiyal, Swati Tripathi, Manoj MC Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 National Workshop on Biodiversity & Conservation in the Himalayan Region Ansuya Bhandari, Mohd Hussain, Priyanka Ashokrao Ingle, Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Demonstration of process-based reconstruction of annual temperatures from tree ring oxygen isotope <p>Forecasting the global warming of the post-industrial period requires knowledge of natural variations in climatic parameters, especially temperature in preceding times. Due to its stable time resolution and known physiochemical formation process, tree ring cellulose isotope datasets have immense potential to yield climatic variability information. The first standardized site-independent temperature reconstruction model from tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope data is demonstrated here using data from a montane site in the western Himalayas. This model does not require any statistical calibration and can be directly compared with instrumental or modelled data. The resulting temperature amplitude is dependent on moisture availability and this input is needed to modulate the reconstruction. The present work tests the possibility of input of carbon isotope discrimination as a proxy of relative humidity. This input achieved amplitude control but additional frequency components were introduced to the reconstruction.</p> Trina Bose, Supriyo Chakraborty Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Palyno–morphological and isotopic characterization of monofloral and multifloral honeys from Lucknow, India <p>We describe and illustrate the detailed palyno–morphological attributes, based on light microscopy (LM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as characterize the carbon stable isotopic (δ13C) values of filtered and unfiltered natural and commercial honey samples from Lucknow, India. The principal objective behind conducting the melissopalynological investigation is to gather relevant information about the pollen and nectar sources, foraged by honey bees in an area, which is a decade–old expansion of the city on an arable land. The pollen assemblages revealed one monofloral and two multifloral honey samples, ultimately provide insights into the variety of plants foraged by honey bees in an urban set–up, and is a potential archive for observing decadal changes in plant diversity. The carbon stable isotopic (δ13C) values of all the natural honeys varied from ~ –25 to –26‰, which relates to the regional vegetation types and environmental conditions. The difference between the filtered (without pollen) and unfiltered honey is ≤ 1.00‰. The δ13C values of the three commercial honey, which are filtered /without pollen are same i.e. –27‰. Hence, it is suggested that honey with pollen of diverse flora of the study area should be preferred by the consumers as a pure and also as a clinically safe food product.</p> Sumaiyah Farooqui, Md Firoze Quamar, Anjum Farooqui, Rajesh Agnihotri, Salman Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Late Oligocene atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations reconstructed from fossil leaves using stomatal index <p>Ancient atmospheric CO2 can be reconstructed using various climate proxies; stomata from fossil leaves are one of the climate proxies that provide critical information about past climatic conditions of the Earth. Exceptionally well–preserved fossil leaves found in overbank deposits in Chilga of Northwest Ethiopia were used to estimate late Oligocene atmospheric CO2 values using stomatal index. The age of the fossils, 206Pb/238U: 27.23 ± 0.03 Ma, was determined from zircons in an ash deposit comprising the matrix deposited contemporaneously with the fossil leaves. Stomatal indices were calculated from both the fossil leaves and nearest living relatives of the fossils. Corresponding atmospheric CO2 values for the nearest living relatives of the fossils were assigned from historical records from the Mauna Loa Observatory. This produces a calibrating curve that shows variation of atmospheric CO2 over time, and late Oligocene atmospheric CO2 values were quantified from the calibrating curve. The quantified late Oligocene atmospheric CO2 values are about 343 ± 11 ppm which show a 12 % decrease when they are quantified using a leaf gas exchange method. This is consistent with the idea that stomatal–index method underestimates CO2 values compared to the leaf gas exchange method. The late Oligocene was colder than both its preceding Eocene and its following Miocene epochs, and the results are incongruent with the cold Oligocene period. These results for this particular geologic time provide opportunity to examine how plants responded to climate changes in the past and have important implications for the study of current and future climate changes.</p> Tekie Tesfamichael Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Early Eocene biotic assemblage from the sedimentary deposits of the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine, Gujarat and its palaeoenvironmental implications <p>The Palaeogene biota and the palaeoenvironmental history from the low latitudes are remarkably well–preserved in the<br />open–cast lignite deposits from Western India. Lignite sequences of the Cambay Shale Formation (Gujarat) have been a major<br />source to understand the concept of early evolution of fossils including flora, arthropods, vertebrates fauna, and several aquatic<br />forms during the Early Eocene. The study deals with an extensive record of amber inclusions and extracted pollen, vertebrate<br />fragments, dinoflagellate cysts and Carbon isotopes from the lignite and associated sediments from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine<br />to add insights into the palaeoenvironment and depositional conditions of the Cambay Basin during the Early Eocene period. The<br />current study demonstrates that throughout the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epoch, the palaeoenvironment changed from<br />low land, marshy (lower portion), to shallow marine environment, presumably due to hyperthermal event PETM (middle part).<br />Age diagnostic taxa, viz. Auxiodinium longispinosum, Apectodinium parvum and early wetzelielloid (Vallodinium? sp.) excursion<br />provide late Palaeocene–early Eocene period (~56–53 Ma) for the dinocyst interval in the middle part of the section. A pronounced<br />negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) in the middle part is correlated to the second Eocene Thermal maximum (53.7 Ma),<br />which is a globally recorded hyperthermal event. During the ETM–2 warming, the rise in pCO2 caused warm, humid conditions<br />as well as a rise in sea level, which may have contributed to the establishment of constrained shallow marine environments in the<br />examined middle unit sedimentary succession. Floral (spore–pollens, leaf, wood, seed, fruits) and faunal assemblages (Crocodiles,<br />fish remains, amber insects) revealed the prevalence of a dense tropical luxurious rain forest (floral and faunal) near shore during<br />the ETM–2 in the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mines, Cambay Basin.</p> Prem Raj Uddandam, Priya Agnihotri, Shailesh Agrawal, Hukam Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphical implications of the palynoflora and macro–charcoal from the early Permian of the Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, Jharkhand, India <p>Palynological and macro–charcoal studies have been carried out on fossiliferous material from the upper seam of the Barakar Formation of Simlong Open Cast Mine (OCM), Chuperbhita Coalfield, India. The palynoassemblage exhibits a dominance of non– striate bisaccate pollen, mainly Scheuringipollenites, and a subdominance of striate bisaccate pollen assignable to Faunipollenites, suggesting an early Permian age (Artinskian). The presence of macro–charcoal indicates the occurrence of wildfire at the time of deposition of the Barakar Formation at Simlong OCM. The composition of the palynological assemblage, as well as anatomical details of the macro–charcoal, indicate that the source vegetation was dominated by gymnosperms. The non–abraded edges of many charcoal fragments suggest that the charcoal has not been transported over a long distance, indicating local to regional fires. Together with previous records of macro–charcoal, and the high inertinite contents of many Permian coals from India, this study further supports the widespread occurrence of palaeo–wildfires as frequent sources of disturbance in continental ecosystems in this part of Gondwana during the early Permian.</p> Srikanta Murthy, Deepa Agnihotri, Prof. Dieter Uhl, Prof. Andre Jasper, Ranjit Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 Large–leaved Annularia species (Equisetopsida) in Pennsylvanian Variscan Euramerica–a Preliminary Review <p>Seven fossil–species can be distinguished within the range of late Carboniferous and early Permian equisetopsid (“horsetail”) foliage formerly assigned to Annularia stellata. The shoots bearing this foliage also produced distinctive strobili often known as Calamostachys tuberculata. These foliage species can be differentiated by leaf and whorl morphology, and each species has a distinct geographical and stratigraphical range. The group first appeared in the intramontane basins of the Variscan Mountains in the late Duckmantian, and then expanded into the lowland paralic coal swamps in the Bolsovian–Asturian. The group continued to flourish in coal swamp refugia during the Stephanian but eventually disappeared during the early Permian.</p> Christopher Cleal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530 INQUA in India: Some Reminiscences and Some Anticipations <p>A brief narrative on early development of Quaternary Sciences in India and its association with International Quaternary Union is presented. A discussion on expectations that accrue from increasing demands on the use of geoscience as services is presented along with some thoughts on recalibration of scientific objectives, resource augmentation through enhanced inclusivity of other disciplines and capacity building in Global South, are outlined, both for the Indian and the international context.</p> A.K. Singhvi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Palaeosciences Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0530