Upper Palaeozoic flora of Kashmir Himalaya


  • G. Singh Geological Survey of India, Northern Region, Lucknow 226007, India
  • P.K. Maithy Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • M.N. Bose Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India




Upper Palaeozoic flora, Glossopteris, Gangamopteris, Lobatannularia, Rajahia, Permian, Upper Devonian, Kashmir Himalaya, India


The paper deals with plant fossils collected from the Upper Palaeozoic rocks of Kashmir Himalaya ranging in age from Upper Devonian to Permian. The distribution of plants, so far collected in the various formations, is as follows:

Aishmuqam Formation (Upper Devonian)- ?Taeniocrada sp. and ?Protolepidodendron sp.

Syringothyris Limestone and Fenestella Shale formations (Lower Carboniferous)- Archaeosigillaria minuta Lejal, Lepidosigillaria cf. quadrata Danze-Corsin, Lepidodendropsis cf. peruviana (Gothan) Jongmans, L. fenestrata Jongmans, Cyclostigma cf. pacifica (Steinmann) Jongmans, Rhacopteris ovata (McCoy) Walkom, Triphyllopteris lecuriana (Meek) Jongmans, Rhodea cf. subpetiolata (Potonie) Gothan and Palmatopteris cf. furcata Potonie.

Nishatbagh and Mamal formations (Lower Permian)-(a) Nishatbagh Formation-Gangamopteris kashmirensis Seward, Glossopteris longicaulis Feistmantel, G. nishatbaghensis sp. nov. and ?Nummulospermum sp. (b) Mamal Formation - Parasphenophyllum thonii var. minor (Sterzel) Asama, Trizygia speciosa Royle, Lobatannularia ensifolia Halle, Rajahia mamalensis sp. nov., Glossopteris intermittens Feistmantel, G. cf. communis Feistmantel, G. cf. feistmantelii Rigby, G. cf. taeniopteroides Feistmantel, G. angustifolia Brongniart, Glossopteris sp., ?Cordaites sp., Ginkgophyllum haydenii (Seward) Maithy,  G. sahnii (Ganju) Maithy and a cone-like organ.

In the Upper Devonian the plant fossils are extremely rare and very badly preserved. The Lower Carboniferous flora shows a remarkable resemblance with the assemblage described from Peru and is in general agreement with the rest of the Lower Carboniferous floras known from other parts of the world. The Permian flora has two distinct elements, one present in the Nishatbagh Formation and the other in the Mamal Formation. The former is dominated by the presence of Gangamopteris, whereas, the latter is dominated by Glossopteris. Moreover, at Mamal there are two genera, viz., Lobatannularia and Rajahia which are typically Cathaysian elements. Some of the species of Glossopteris, too, seem to be distinct from all the species of Glossopteris reported from the Lower Gondwana of Peninsular India.


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How to Cite

Singh, G., Maithy, P., & Bose, M. (1982). Upper Palaeozoic flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Journal of Palaeosciences, 30, 185–232. https://doi.org/10.54991/jop.1982.1450



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