Palynology of the Late Pliocene sediments of Pinjor Formation, Haryana, India


  • M.R. Rao Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • R. Patnaik Centre of Advance Study in Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India



Palynology, Palaeoecology, Pinjor Formation, Late Pliocene, Upper Siwalik, Haryana, India


Present study highlights the palynoassemblage consisting of algal and fungal remains, Pteridophytic spores, gymnosperm and angiosperm pollen recovered from the Pinjor Formation exposed at Nadah, Panchkula, Haryana. The assemblage is dominated by pollen of gymnosperms and angiosperms followed by pteridophytic spores. Algal remains assignable to the Zygnemataceae (Spirogyra, Mougeotia and Zygnema), fungal spores (Polyadosporites and Frasnacritetrus), pteridophytic spores Lycopodiumsporites (Lycopodium), Pteridacidites (Pteris) and Striatriletes (Ceratopteris), gymnosperm pollen Pinuspollenites (Pinus), Piceapollenites (Picea) and Abiespollenites (Abies) have been recorded. Angiosperm pollen are mainly represented by Pinjoriapollis (Magnolia), Retitrescolpites, Graminidites,  Chenopodipollis and Malvacearumpollis. On the basis of their affinities with the modem equivalents, a warm and humid tropical-subtropical climate has been inferred for the Pinjor Formation. The presence of Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, Lycopodium, Ceratopteris, fungal spores (Polyadosporites spp.) and angiosperm pollen (Malvacearumpollis) collectively suggest the existence of moist and swampy depositional environment. The presence of grass pollen (Poaceae) indicates the existence of herbaceous flora. The significant drop in grass pollen coinciding with the good proportion of ferns in the middle part of the Pinjor Formation suggests that the vegetation was changed from dry to mainly wet and marshy grassland. Based on the overall palynofloral assemblage. a wet grassland with open and mixed flora during the Pinjor sedimentation has been inferred. The temperate elements viz., Abies, Pinus and Picea appear to be derived from the nearby upland areas of the rising Himalaya.


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How to Cite

Rao, M., & Patnaik, R. (2001). Palynology of the Late Pliocene sediments of Pinjor Formation, Haryana, India. Journal of Palaeosciences, 50((1-3), 267–286.



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