Large–leaved Annularia species (Equisetopsida) in Pennsylvanian Variscan Euramerica–a Preliminary Review


  • Christopher Cleal Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RL, UK



Equisetopsida, Horsetails, Annularia, Pennsylvanian, Permian


Seven fossil–species can be distinguished within the range of late Carboniferous and early Permian equisetopsid (“horsetail”) foliage formerly assigned to Annularia stellata. The shoots bearing this foliage also produced distinctive strobili often known as Calamostachys tuberculata. These foliage species can be differentiated by leaf and whorl morphology, and each species has a distinct geographical and stratigraphical range. The group first appeared in the intramontane basins of the Variscan Mountains in the late Duckmantian, and then expanded into the lowland paralic coal swamps in the Bolsovian–Asturian. The group continued to flourish in coal swamp refugia during the Stephanian but eventually disappeared during the early Permian.


अंतिम कार्बोनीफेरस तथा प्रारंभिक पर्मियन इक्विसेटोप्सिड ("हॉर्सटेल") पर्णसमूह के अंतर्गत सात जीवाश्म-जाति विभेदित की जा सकती है जो पूर्व में एनुलेरिया स्टेल्लाटा को नियत थी। पर्णसमूह  को धारण करने वाली यह शाखा विशिष्ट अंकुरधारी प्ररोह (स्ट्रोबिली) भी प्रस्तुत करती  हैं जो समान्यतः कैलामोस्टैचिस ट्यूबरकुलाटा के नाम से विख्यात है। ये पर्णसमूह जाति पर्ण तथा चक्र आकारिकी से विभेदित की जा सकती है तथा प्रत्येक जाति की भिन्न भौगोलिक एवं स्तरीकीय श्रेणी होती है। यह समूह पहली बार अंतिम डकमेंशियन में वैरिस्कन पर्वतों के अंतः पर्वतीय द्रोणियों में प्रकट हुए, उसके तत्पश्चात बोल्सोवियन-अस्टुरियन में निम्नभूमि पैरालिक कोयला दलदलों में विस्तृत हो गए। यह समूह का स्टेफ़नियन के दौरान कोयला दलदल रिफ्यूजिया में विकासित  होता रहा परंतु प्रारंभिक पर्मियन में अंततः विलुप्त  हो गया।


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How to Cite

Cleal, C. (2023). Large–leaved Annularia species (Equisetopsida) in Pennsylvanian Variscan Euramerica–a Preliminary Review. Journal of Palaeosciences, 72(2), 153–174.



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