Pollen morphological study in subfamily Papilionoideae using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy


  • Anjali Trivedi Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Alka Srivastava 2Dayanand Girls Post–Graduate College, 13/394, Parwati Bagla Road, Kanpur 208001, India
  • Anjum Farooqui Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Salman Khan Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Anil K. Pokharia Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • David K. Ferguson Department of Palaeontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, Vienna A–1090, Austria
  • Veeru Kant Singh Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India




CLSM, Pollen morphology, Papilionoideae, Kanpur, India, Cluster Analysis


The pollen morphological study was carried out in the subfamily Papilionoideae using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) to facilitate the identification of pollen in sedimentary archives. Pollen has long been used as an excellent proxy for understanding past vegetation, ecology, climate and agricultural strategies of ancient settlements and therefore, its identification at a specific level is of utmost importance. The modern pollen samples were retrieved from plants growing in urban and rural areas of Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India. The cluster analysis and PCA of pollen morphological characters in the subfamily determine the generic and species relationships outlining the affinity of taxa in the subfamily Papilionoideae.


तलछटी अभिलेखागार में पराग की पहचान के लिए कन्फोकल लेजर स्कैनिंग माइक्रोस्कोपी (सीएलएसएम) का उपयोग करते हुए उपपरिवार पैपिलिओनोइडी में पराग रूपात्मक अध्ययन किया गया। प्राचीन बस्तियों की पुरावनस्पति, पारिस्थितिकी, जलवायु और कृषि रणनीतियों को समझने के लिए पराग का लंबे समय से एक उत्कृष्ट प्रतिनिधि के रूप में उपयोग किया जा रहा है और इसलिए, एक विशिष्ट स्तर पर इसकी पहचान अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण है। आधुनिक पराग के नमूने कानपुर, उत्तर प्रदेश के शहरी और ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में उगने वाले पौधों से प्राप्त किए गए थे। क्लस्टर विश्लेषण और पराग रूपात्मक वर्णों का पीसीए उपपरिवार पैपिलिओनोइडी के टैक्सा की आत्मीयता को रेखांकित करते हुए जेनेरिक और प्रजाति संबंधों को निर्धारित करता है।  



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Basumatary SK, Singh H, van Asperen EN, Tripathi S, McDonald HG & Pokharia AK 2020. Coprophilous and non–coprophilous fungal spores of Bosmutus modern dung from the Indian Himalaya: Implications to temperate palaeoherbivory and palaeoecological analysis. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 277: 104208. doi: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.10420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104208

Bano A, Ahmad M, Rashid S, Zafar MA, Shfaq S, Rehman S, Ali MI, Sultana S, Saheen S & Ahmad S 2018. Microscopic investigations of some selected species of Papilionaceae through SEM and LM from Skardu Valley, northern Pakistan. Microscopy Research and Technique 82: 452–458. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23188

Bhattacharya K, Majumdar MR, Gupta S & Bhattacharya S 2009. A textbook of palynology. Kolkata. New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd. ISBN–81–7381–500–3.

Datta SC & Mukherji B 1952. Pharmacognosy of Indian Leaf Drugs, Bulletin No. 2. Government of India, Ministry of Health, Government of India Press, Calcutta.

Daluz CFP, Makies, Horák–Terra I, Vidal–Torrado P & Filho CVM 2013. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau–de–Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Annals of Brazilian Academy of Sciences. 85(4): 1329–1344. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201380511

Erdtman G 1969. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms. (Corrected reprint). Hafner Publishing Co, New York.

Faegri K & Iversen J 1975. Text book of pollen analysis. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Ferguson IK & Skvarla JJ 1983. The granular interstitium in the pollen of sub family Papilionoideae (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany 70: 1401–1408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1983.tb07929.x

Fritzsche J 1832. Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Pollens. Berlin.

Gavrilova OA 2012. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) for Identification of pollen grains: new possibilities. Abstract (IPC/IOPC 2012 Tokyo, Japan).

Gavrilova OA, Zavialova N, Tekleva M & Karasev E 2018. Potential of CLSM in studying some modern and fossil palynological objects. Journal of Microscopy 2693: 291–309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12639

Gazar MH 2003. Pollen morphology of the three genera of Family Papilionoideae in Egypt (Melilotus, Trifolium and Trigonella). Acta Botanica. Hungarica 45: 279–296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1556/ABot.45.2003.3-4.4

Gosling WD, Miller CS & Livingstone DA 2013. Atlas of the tropical West African pollen flora. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 199: 1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2013.01.003

Hammer Ø, Harper DAT & Paul DR 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4: 1–9.

Ikuse M 1956. Pollen grains of Japan. Hirokawa Publishing Co, Tokyo, 303 pp.

Mabberley DJ 1987. The Plant Book, a Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Mao L, Batten DJ, Fujiki T, Li Z, Dai L & Weng C 2012. Key to mangrove pollen and apertures of southern China: an aid to palynological interpretation of Quaternary deposits in the South China Sea. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 176: 41–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2012.03.004

Masood A, Khan WM, Khan MS, Murad W & Ali S 2015. Taxonomic study of sub family Papilionaceae of District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pure and Applied Biology 4(1): 125–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19045/bspab.2015.41017

Muller J 1979. Form and Function in angiosperm: Annals Missouri Bot. Garden 66: 593–632. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2398913

Nair PKK 1970. Pollen morphology of angiosperms. A historical and phylogenetic study. National Botanical Gardens, Lucknow. Scholar Publishing House, India.

Nayar TS 1990. Pollen flora of Maharashtra State. International Bioscience Series. Today & Tomorrows Printers. XIV.

Perveen A & Qaiser M 1998. Pollen flora of Pakistan–VIII–Leguminosae. Turkish. Journal of Botany 22: 145–156.

Rendle AB 1952. The Classification of Flowering Plants–ll, Cambridge.

Ryan BF & Joiner BL 2001. MINITAB Handbook, 4th ed. Belmont, CA. Duxbury Press.

Selling O 1947. Studies in Hawaiian pollen statistics, Part–2: The pollen of the Hawaiian phanerogams sp. publ. 38. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Sharma S, Manjul SK, Manjul A, Pande PC & Pokharia AK 2021. Dating adoption and intensification of food–crops: insights from 4 msr (Binjor), an Indus (Harappan) site in northwestern India. Radiocarbon 62(5): 1–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2020.37

Saxena A, Trivedi A, Chauhan MS & Sharma A 2015. Holocene vegetation and climate change in Central Ganga Plain: a study based on multiproxy records from Chaudhary–ka–Tal, Raebareli District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Quaternary International 371: 164–174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.01.041

Trivedi A, Chauhan MS, Sharma A, Nautiyal CM & Tiwari DP 2013. Record of vegetation and climate during late Pleistocene–Holocene in Central Ganga Plain, based on multiproxy data from Jalesar Lake, Uttar Pradesh, India. Quaternary International 306: 97–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.04.010

Trivedi A, Saxena A & Chauhan MS 2019. Study on modern vegetation distribution in Sevan Tal area, Raebareli District, Uttar Pradesh. The Palaeobotanist 68(1–2): 139–146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54991/jop.2019.40

Tang YN, Li X, Yao YF, Ferguson DK & Li CS 2014. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86363. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086363 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086363

Vishnu–Mittre & Sharma BD 1962. Studies on Indian pollen grains–Leguminosae. Pollen & Spores 4(1): 5–45.

Von Mueller F 1876. Select plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation in Victoria, with indications of their native countries and some of their uses. McCarron, Bird and Company, Flidness Lane West 3, Melbourne, 293 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.69217

Yang WP, Zhang HC & Xu FM 1998. A tentative study on the ultrastructure of the Middle Permian acritarch Microhystridium from western Yunnan, China. Chinese Science Bulletin 43: 1823–1826. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02883381

Yang A, Zheng Z, Mao L, Ferguson DK, Huang K, Chen B & Ranhotra P 2015. Selected pollen grains from tropical Hainan Island, south China: An identification key to Quaternary pollen. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 222: 84–103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2015.07.011

Zohary M & Heller D 1984. The Genus Trifolium 1st. Edn, Ahva Printing Press, Jerusalem: 4–5.

Yao Y–F, Li X, Jiang H–E, Ferguson DK, Hueber F, Ghosh R, et al. 2012. Pollen and Phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China. PLoS ONE, 76.: e39780. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039780




How to Cite

Trivedi, A., Srivastava, A., Farooqui, A., Khan, S., Pokharia, A. K., Ferguson, D. K., & Singh, V. K. (2022). Pollen morphological study in subfamily Papilionoideae using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Journal of Palaeosciences, 71(2), 123–142. https://doi.org/10.54991/jop.2022.538



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>