Palynostratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Permian sediments in Mand Coalfield, Mahanadi Basin, Chhattisgarh, India
Keywords:Palynology, Permian, Palaeoenvironment, Mand Coalfield, Chhattisgarh
Palynological investigation of 483.00 m deep subsurface Permian sediments of borehole MSK–1, in Sithra–Kurekela Block of Mand Coalfield, revealed four distinct palynoassemblage zones. These palynoassemblages belong to Lower and Upper Barakar (Early Permian), Barren Measures and Raniganj (Late Permian) palynofloras of Indian Gondwana. The oldest Palynoassemblage–I, (Scheuringipollenites barakarensis) recorded between 483.60–309.00 m depths, shows dominance of non–striate bisaccate pollen grains chiefly ― Scheuringipollenites followed by Faunipollenites in association with Indotriradites, Dentatispora, Verrucosispora and Microbaculispora related to Lower Barakar palynoflora. Palynoassemblage–II, (Faunipollenites varius) recorded between 303.40–139.40 m depths, showing the dominance of Faunipollenitesin association with Scheuringipollenites, Striatopodocarpites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes and Striamonosaccites, indicates Upper Barakar palynoflora. Palynoassemblage–III, (Densipollenites indicus) recorded between 135.55 to 92.50 m depths, showing the prominence of enveloping monosaccate pollen (Densipollenites) in association with Faunipollenites, Microfoveolatispora, Striatopodocarpites and Verticipollenites, indicates Barren Measures palynoflora. Palynoassemblage–IV, (Densipollenites magnicorpus) recorded between 90.90–27.00 m depths, is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccate pollen taxa chiefly Striatopodocarpites and Faunipollenites along with Densipollenites, Navalesporites, Distriatites, Hamiapollenites, Crescentipollenites and Guttulapollenites indicating late Permian (Raniganj) age. Raniganj palynoflora has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barren Measures Formation. This is the first report of Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora from Sithra–Kurekela area of this coalfield. The age correlation also gets support from comparative studies with similar palynoassemblages known from Indian Gondwana. Palynofloral evidences indicate the prevalence of warm and humid conditions. Dominance of gymnosperms represented by glossopterids, conifers and cordaites along with low percentage of trilete spores (filicopsids and sphenopsids) suggests that the sediments were deposited under fresh to brackish water environment.
Aggarwal N & Jha N 2013. Permian palynostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Lingala Koyagudem Coalbelt, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 64: 38–57.
Anand–Prakash & Srivastava SC 1984. Miofloral studies of the Lower Gondwana sediments in Johilla Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist 32: 243–252.
Bandyopadhyay RK 1989. Geology and coal resources of the central part (Gharghoda Town) of Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, district Raigarh, M.P. Unpublished Report of Coal Wing, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta.
Bharadwaj DC 1962. The miospore genera in the coals of Raniganj Stage (Upper Permian) India. Palaeobotanist 9: 68–106.
Bharadwaj DC, Navale GKB & Anand–Prakash 1974. Palynostratigraphy and petrology of Lower Gondwana coals in Pench–Kanhan Coalfield, Satpura Gondwana Basin, M.P., India. Geophytology 4(1): 7–24.
Bharadwaj DC, Sah SCD & Tiwari RS 1965. Sporological analysis of some coal and carbonaceous shales from Barren Measure Stage (Lower Gondwana) of India. Palaeobotanist 13(2): 222–226.
Bharadwaj DC & Srivastava SC 1973. Subsurface palynological succession in Korba Coalfield, M.P., India. Palaeobotanist 20: 137–151.
Bharadwaj DC, Tiwari RS & Anand–Prakash 1978. Palynology of Bijori Formation (Upper Permian) in Satpura Gondwana Basin, India. Palaeobotanist 25: 70–78.
Bharadwaj DC, Tiwari RS & Anand–Prakash 1979. Permo–Triassic palynostratigraphy and lithostratigraphical characteristic in Damodar Basin, India. Biological Memoir 4: 49–82.
Bharadwaj DC & Tripathi A 1978. A palynostratigraphic study of Lower Gondwana sediments from South Karanpura Coalfield, Bihar, India. Palaeobotanist 25: 39–61.
Birks HJB & Birks HH 1980. Quaternary Palaeoecology, 2a ed. E. Arnold Press, London, p. 236.
Cazzulo–Klepzig M, Menegat R & Guerra–Sommer M 2005. Palynology and palaeobotany in the reconstruction of landscape units from the Candiota Coalfield, Permian of Paraná Basin, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8: 83–98.
Chakraborti B 2001. New palaeobotanical evidence for Early Triassic to Middle Triassic age for the lower most red bed of Kampthi Formation, Raigarh Gondwana Basin, M.P. In: Dutta AB et al. (Editors) ─Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances in Geology of Coal and Lignite basins of India, Kolkata, 1997; Geological Survey of India Special Publication No. 54: 113–122.
Chakraborti B & Chakraborty S 2001. Triassic floral assemblage from Baronakunda, Raigarh Gondwana Basin, Madhya Pradesh. In: Dutta AB et al. (Editors) ─Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances in Geology of Coal and Lignite basins of India, Kolkata, 1997; Geological Survey of India Special Publication No. 54: 103–112.
Chakraborti B & Ram–Awatar 2006. Interrelationship of the palynofloral assemblages from Mand Coalfield, Chhattisgarh and its significance. Indian Minerals 60: 153–170.
Chakraborti B, Roy DK, Rajaram KN & Mukhopadhyay GC 2002. Final report on regional exploration for coal in Ongana–Potiya area, Mand Coalfield, Raigarh District, Chhattisgarh. Geological Survey of India Coal Wing, (Unpublished Report).
Chakraborty S 2003. Miofloral assemblage of the subsurface Gondwana rocks of Permian in parts of Mahanadi Basin, India. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 42: 13–21.
Gautam S, Tewari R, Goswami S & Ram–Awatar 2014. Palynostratigraphy of Lower Gondwana sediments in Ghunghuti area, Sohagpur Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India. Science & Technology Journal, Mizoram University, Aizawl 2: 4–14.
Jana BN, Bhattacharyya AP & Chakraborti B 2002. Permian palynological succession from Mand Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Journal of the Geological Society of India 59: 537–546.
Jha N & Aggarwal N 2010. Palynostratigraphy, dating and correlation of coal bearing and associated sediments in Mamakannu area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist 59: 91–106.
Jha N & Aggarwal N 2012. Permian–Triassic palynostratigraphy in Mailaram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Earth System Sciences 121(5): 1257–1285.
Jha N, Chary MB & Aggarwal N 2012. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Earth System Sciences 121(5): 1287–1303.
Kar RK 1966. Palynology of the Barren Measures sequence from Jharia Coalfield, Bihar–1. Summary and Discussion. Symposium Floristics & Stratigraphy Gondwanaland: 121–127. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
Kar RK 1969. Palynology of the North Karanpura Basin, Bihar, India–4. Subsurface palynology of the bore hole no. K5. Palaeobotanist 17(1): 19–21.
Kar RK 1973. Palynological delimitation of the Lower Gondwana in the North Karanpura sedimentary Basin, India. Palaeobotanist 20(2): 300–317.
Knoll J & Nicklas E 1987. Adaptation, plant evolution and the fossil record. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 72: 886–887.
Lele KM & Srivastava AK 1977. A mioflora of Barren Measures age from the Auranga Coalfield, Bihar. Palaeobotanist 24(2): 118–124.
Mahesh S, Murthy S, Gautam S, Souza PA, Pauline Sabina K, Mary Elizabeth Cerruti Bernardes–de–Oliveira, Ram–Awatar & Félix CM 2017. Macroscopic charcoal remains as evidence of wildfire from late Permian Gondwana sediments of India: Further contribution to global fossil charcoal database. Palaeoworld 26: 638–649.
Meena KL 2000. Palynodating of subsurface sediments of borehole IBH6 in IB River Coalfield, Orissa, India. Geophytology 29: 111–113.
Murthy S, Chakraborti B & Roy MD 2010. Palynodating of subsurface sediments, Raniganj Coalfield, Damodar Basin, West Bengal. Journal of Earth System Sciences 119: 701–710.
Murthy S, Ram–Awatar & Gautam S 2014a. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism. Journal of Earth System Sciences 123(8): 1879–1893.
Murthy S, Tripathi A, Chakraborti B & Singh UP 2014b. Palynostratigraphy of Permian Succession from Binja Block, South Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand, India. Journal of Earth System Science 123(8): 1895–1906.
Murthy S, Vijaya & Vethanayagam SM 2013. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Pench Valley Coalfield, Satpura Basin, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 58(2): 241–250.
Naik AS, Singh MP, Volkmann N, Singh PK, Mohanty D & Kumar D 2016. Petrographic characteristics and palaeomires of Mand–Raigarh coals, Mahanadi Gondwana Basin, Chhattisgarh, India. International Journal of Coal Science & Technology 3(2): 165–183.
Pal AK 1984. Report of the palaeontological study of the Barakar and Kamthi formations of Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Raigarh District, M.P. Unpublished Progress Report of Geological Survey of India (Field Season 1982–83).
Raja Rao CS 1983. Coal resources of Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir coalfields of India, Mand–Raigarh Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh. Geological Survey of India, Bulletin, Series 45(3): 12–20.
Ram–Awatar 1996. Palynozonation of Middle Pali Member in Sohagpur Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh. Palaeobotanist 43: 96–101.
Ram–Awatar 2007. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Lower Gondwana sediments in Raigarh Basin, Chhattisgarh, India. In: Sinha DK (Editors) —Micropalaeontology: Application in Stratigraphy and Palaeoceanography: 71–79.
Ram–Awatar, Mukhopadhyay A & Adhikari S 2004. Palynostratigraphy of sub–surface Pali sediments, Sohagpur Coalfield, M.P., India. Palaeobotanist 53: 51–59.
Sarate OS 1986. Palynological correlation of the coal seams of Pathakhera Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India. Geophytology 16: 239–248.
Sarate OS & Patil GV 1994. Palynostratigraphy of Bijori sediments, Satpura Basin, India. Geophytology 23(2): 197–201.
Shukla M 1983. Lithostratigraphy and palynostratigraphy of the Lower Gondwana formations in the Hutar Coalfield, Palamau District, Bihar, India. Palaeobotanist 31(2): 176–190.
Srivastava SC 1973. Palynostratigraphy of the Giridih Coalfield. Geophytology 3: 184–194.
Srivastava SC & Anand Prakash 1984. Palynological succession of the Lower Gondwana sediments in Umaria Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist 32: 26–34.
Srivastava SC & Jha N 1989. Palynostratigraphy of Lower Gondwana sediments in Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist 37(2): 199–209.
Srivastava SC & Jha N 1992. Permian palynostratigraphy in Ramakrishnapuram area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India. Geophytology 20: 83–95.
Srivastava SC & Jha N 1995. Palynostratigraphy and correlation of Permian– Triassic sediments in Budharam area, Godavari Graben, India. Journal of Geological Society of India 46: 647–653.
Srivastava Suresh C & Jha N 1996. Palynology of sub–surface Permian sediments in Koyagudem area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh. Geophytology 25: 131–136.
Srivastava SC & Kar R 2001. Palynological dating of some Permian outcrops from Iria Valley, Tatapani–Ramkola Coalfield, M.P., India. In: Dutta AB et al. (Editors) ― Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances in Geology of Coal and Lignite basins of India, Kolkata, 1997. Geological Survey of India Special Publication No.54: 97–102.
Srivastava SC & Maheshwari HK 1974. Palynostratigraphy of the Damuda Group in the Brahmani Coalfield, Rajmahal Hills, Bihar. Geophytology 4(1): 35–45.
Srivastava SC & Sarate OS 1989. Palynostratigraphy of the Lower Gondwana sediments from Shobhapur Block, Pathakhera Coalfield, Madhya Pradesh. Palaeobotanist 37: 125–133.
Taylor TN & Taylor EL 1993. The biology and evolution of fossil plants. New Jersey, Prentice–Hall Inc., 982 p.
Tiwari RS 1973. Palynological succession in the Barakar type area. Geophytology 3: 166–183.
Tiwari RS & Ram–Awatar 1989. Sporae disperase and correlation of Gondwana sediments in Johilla Coalfield, Son Valley Graben, Madhya Pradesh. Palaeobotanist 37: 94–114.
Tiwari RS, Srivastava Suresh C, Tripathi A & Vijaya 1981. Palynostratigraphy of Lower Gondwana sediments in Jharia Coalfield, Bihar. Geophytology 11(2): 220–237.
Tiwari RS & Tripathi A 1992. Marker Assemblage zones of spore and pollen species through Gondwana Palaeozoic–Mesozoic sequence in India. Palaeobotanist 40: 194–236.
Tiwari RS, Tripathi A & Jana BN 1991. Palynological evidence for Upper Permian Raniganj coals in western part of Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India. Current Science 61: 407–420.
Tripathi A 1997. Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies analysis of subsurface Permian sediments in Talcher Coalfield, Orissa. Palaeobotanist 46: 79–83.
Tripathi A & Bhattacharya D 2001. Palynological resolution of Upper Permian sequence in Talchir Coalfield, Orissa. In: Dutta AB et al. (Editors)― Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances in Geology of Coal and Lignite basins of India, Kolkata, 1997; Geological Survey of India Special Publication No., 54: 59–68.
Tripathi A & Ray A 2005. Palynodating of coal bearing sediments in Pachwara Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, Santhal Pargana, Bihar. In: Majumdar S et al. (Editors) ― Proceedings of Workshop on Solid Fossil Fuel Introspection and perception in Indian context. Geological Survey of India Special Publication No. 81: 135–141.
Tripathi A & Tiwari RS 1982. Barakar mioflora from Jharia Coalfield. Geophytology 12: 195–200.
Tripathi A, Vijaya, Murthy S, Chakraborty B & Das DK 2012. Stratigraphic status of coal horizon in Tatapani–Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of Earth System Science 121(2): 537–557.
Tripathi A, Vijaya & Raychowdhuri AK 2005 Triassic palynoflora from the Mahuli–Mahersop area, Singrauli Coalfield (Southern Extension), Sarguja District, Chhattisgarh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 50(2): 77–99.
Venkatachala BS & Kar RK 1968. Palynology of the North Karanpura Basin, Bihar, India–2. Barakar exposures near Lungatoo, Hazaribagh District. Palaeobotanist 16(3): 258–269.
Vijaya 2004. Palynostratigraphy of the Permian Coal Measures and the Mesozoic succession in Borehole DPD–6, Pachami area, West Bengal, India. Palaeontographica 247B: 33–55.
Vijaya, Tripathi A, Roy A & Mitra S 2012. Palynostratigraphy and age correlation of subsurface strata within the sub–basins in Singrauli Gondwana Basin, India. Journal of Earth System Science 121(4): 1071–1092.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.