Plant megaflora from the Siwalik (Upper Miocene) of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India and its palaeoclimatic and phytogeographic significance


  • M. Prasad Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226007, India
  • A.K. Kannaujia Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India
  • Alok Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India
  • Sanjai Kumar Singh Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 53 University Road, Lucknow 226007, India



Megaflora, Leaf impressions, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, Siwalik (Mio-Pliocene), Palaeoclimate, Phytogeography


Qualitative and quantitative analysis of fossil assemblage so far collected from the Middle Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling District, West Bengal revealed the occurrence of 35 new taxa belonging to 18 angiospermous families. On the basis of present data as well as already known data from there, the reconstruction of vegetation scenarios of Himalayan foothills during Siwalik time has been done. We also discussed problems related to plant diversity, endemism, and migratory pathways of mainly phytogeographically important taxa. The analysis of present day distribution of all the recovered taxa from the region shows that they are mostly known to occur in Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and the Malayan region where the climatic conditions are favourable. About 1/3 taxa of total assemblage are found to grow presently in the Himalayan foothills of the eastern region and the remaining 2/3 taxa are locally extinct. This indicates that the climatic changes must have taken place after Mio–Pliocene. The dominance of evergreen elements in present fossil assemblage indicates the prevalence of tropical warm humid climate with plenty of rainfall during the deposition of sediments. Foliar physiognomic approach for reconstruction of palaeoclimate further suggests that the Oodlabari area in the Himalayan foothills of West Bengal enjoyed a tropical climate (with MAT 28.9º C and MAP 448 mm) during the Miocene Period. This is, however, contrary to the present day climate of the area with reduced precipitation. On the basis of the present fossil assemblage, the coexistence intervals of different climatic parameters, i.e. Mean Annual Temperature (MAT), Warmest Month Temperature (WMT), Coldest Month Temperature (CMT), and Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) have been estimated as 22º C–26.5º C, 17.8º C–20º C, 25º C–30º C, and 2650–3200 mm, respectively. However, Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) suggests the MAT value as 28.9º C for the area during Upper Miocene.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Acharya SK 1972. Geology of the Darjeeling Coalfield with reference to its intrusives. Record Geological Survey of India 99: 75–101.

Acharya SK 1973. Late Palaeozoic glaciation vs. volcanic activity along the Himalayan Chain with special reference to the eastern Himalayas. Himalayan Geology 3: .209–230.

Acharya SK 1975. Structure and stratigraphy of the Darjeeling frontal zone, eastern Himalaya. Recent geological studies in Himalaya. Geological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication 24: 71–90.

Adema F, Leenhouts PC & van Welzen PC 1994. Sapindaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I–Spermatophyta, Vol. 11 (part 3). National Herbarium Netherlands, Leiden, the Netherlands. p. 696.

Agarwal A 1991. Studies of leaf compression from Neyveli lignite deposit, India. Phytomorphology 41: 7–10.

Agarwal A 2002. Contribution to the fossil leaf assemblage from the Miocene Neyveli Lignite deposite, Tamil Nadu. Palaeontographica 261B: 167–206.

Ambwani K 1991. Leaf impressions belonging to the Tertiary age of North east India. Phytomorphology 41: 139–146.

Anon 1966. The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, Vol. VII.

Antal JS & Awasthi N 1993. Fossil flora from the Himalayan foothills of Darjeeling District, West Bengal and its palaeoecological and phytogeographical significance. Palaeobotanist 42: 14–60.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1995. Fossil leaf of Clinogyne Salisb. from the Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Geophytology 24: 241–243.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1996a. Some more leaf–impressions from the Himalayan foothills of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India. Palaeobotanist 43: 1–9.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1996b. Dipterocarpaceous fossil leaves from Ghish River section in Himalayan foothills near Oodlabari, Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Palaeobotanist 43: 73–77.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1996c. Leaf–impressions of Polyalthia Bl. in the Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Geophytology 26: 125–127.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1997. Angiospermous fossil leaves from the Siwalik sediments (Middle–Miocene) of Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Palaeobotanist 46: 95–104.

Antal JS & Prasad M 1998. Morphotaxonomic study of some more fossil leaves from the Lower Siwalik sediments of West Bengal, India. Palaeobotanist 47: 86–98.

Antal JS, Prasad M & Khare EG 1996. Fossil woods from the Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India. Palaeobotanist 43: 98–105.

Antil V, Sinha BN, Pandey A, Diwan A & Saini P 2013. Bombax malabaricum DC: A Salutary Boon. Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovations 3: 17–28

Arya R & Awasthi N 1995: Leaf impressions from Kasauli Formation, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh and their palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental significance. Symposium on Recent Advances in geological studies of north west Himalaya and the Foredeep, Geological Survey of India, Lucknow: 104–106 (Abst).

Ashton PS 1982: Dipterocarpaceae, in Flora Malesiana, Series 1 Spermatophyta ed. C.G.G.J. Van Steenis), Martinus Nijhoff Publication, 1: 237–289.

Awasthi N & Lakhanpal RN 1990. Addition to Neogene florule from near Bhikhnathoree, West Champaran District, Bihar. Palaeobotanist 37: 278–283.

Awasthi N & Mehrotra RC 1995. Oligocene flora from Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. Palaeobotanist 44: 157–188.

Awasthi N & Prasad M 1990. Siwalik plant fossils from Surai Khola area, western Nepal. Palaeobotanist 38: 298–318.

Bailey IW & Sinnott EW 1916. The climatic distribution of certain type of angiosperm leaves. American Journal of Botany 3: 24–39.

Bancroft H 1933. A contribution to the geological history of the Dipterocarpaceae. Geol. For. Stockh. Forh. 55: 59–100.

Bande MB 1974. Two fossil woods from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Mandla District, Madhya Pradesh. Geophytology 4: 189–195.

Bande MB & Khatri SK 1980. Some more fossil woods from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Mandla District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Palaeontographica 173B(4–6): 147–165.

Bande MB & Prakash U 1980. Fossil woods from the Tertiary of West Bengal, India. Geophytology 10: 146–157.

Bande MB & Prakash U 1986. The Tertiary flora of Southeast Asia with remarks on its palaeoenvironment and phytogeography of the Indo–Malayan region. Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology 49: 203–233.

Bande MB & Srivastava GP 1990. Late Cenozoic plant impressions from Mahuadanr Valley, Palamu District, Bihar. Palaeobotanist 37: 331–366.

Banerji I & Banerji S 1982. A coalescing alluvial fan model of the Siwalik sedimentation–a case study in the eastern Himalaya; Geologial Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication 41: 1–12.

Bande MB & Srivastava GP 1990. Late Cenozoic plant impressions from Mahuadanr Valley, Palamu District, Bihar. Palaeobotanist 37: 331–366.

Basak K & Mukul M 2000. Deformation mechanisms in the South Kalijhora Thrust and thrust sheet in the Darjeeling Himalayan fold–and–thrust belt, West Bengal, India. Indian Journal of Geology 72: 143–152.

Bera S & Khan M 2009. Record of fruit and leaflet cf. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from the upper Siwalik sediments (Kimin Formation) of Arunachal Pradesh. In: Mondal S & Bhattacharya S (Editors)—Advances in Plant Biology, D. Bhattacharya Birth Centenary Commemorative Volume. Berlin, Germany: Springer: 432–441.

Bohme M, Bruch AA & Scelmeier A 2007. The reconstruction of Early and Middle Miocene climate and vegetation in southern Germany as determined from the fossil wood flora. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 253: 91–114.

Brandis D 1971. Indian Trees. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Champion HG & Seth SK 1968. A revised survey of the forest types in India. Manager of Publication, Delhi.

Chiarugi A 1933. Legni fossili della Somalia Italiana. VI Fossil dal Pliocene dal Plistocene. Palaeontographica 32: 97–167.

Copley A, Aquae JP & Royer JY 2010. India–Asia collision and the Cenozoic slow down of the Indian Plate: implication for the forces driving plate motions. Journal of Geophysical Research 115: B0310.

Croizat L 1952. Manual of Phytogeography. D.W. Junk B.V. Publisher. The Hague.

Dalvi NS & Kulkarni AR 1982. Leaf cuticle from the lignite beds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Geophytology 12: 223–232.

Davids M 1984. A taxonomic revision of Paranephelium (Sapindaceae). Blumea 29: 425–441.

Dayanandan S, Astho PS, Willians SM & Primack RB 1999. Phylogeny of tropical tree family Dipterocarpaceae based on nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast rbcL gene. American Journal of Botany 86: 1182–1190. St. Louis.

Decousso M, Bena G, Bourgeous C, Buyck B, Eyssarther G, Vincelette M, Rabevohitra R, Randrihasipara L, Dreyus B & Prin Y 2004. The last common ancestor of Sarcolaenaceae and Asin dipterocarps trees was ectomycorhizal before the India–Madagascar separation about 88 million years ago. Molecular Ecology 13: 231–236; Malden, USA.

Desch HF 1957. Manual of Malayan Timbers. Journal Malayan Forest Record 15: 1–328.

Dilcher DL 1974. Approaches to identification of angiospermous leaf remains. Botanical Review 40: 1–157.

Dorf E 1969. Palaeobotanical evidence of Mesozoic and Cenozoic climatic changes. Proceedings of the North American palaeontological Convention: 323–346.

Dutta S, Tripathi SM, Mallik M, Mathews RP, Greenwood PF, Rao MR & Summons RE 2011. Eocene out–of–India dispersal of Asian Dipterocarps. Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology 166: 63–68. Amsterdam.

Dwivedi HD, Prasad M & Tripathi PP 2006a. Angiospermous leaves from the Lower Siwalik sediments of Koilabas area, western Nepal and their phytogeographical significance. Journal of Applied Bioscience 32: 135–142.

Dwivedi HD, Prasad M & Tripathi PP 2006b. Fossil leaves belonging to the family Fabaceae and Lythraceae from the Siwalik sediments of Koilabas area, western Nepal. Geophytology 36: 113–121.

Gaillard Y, Krishnamoorthy A & Bevalo TF 2004. Cerbera odollam: a ‘suicide tree’ and cause of death in the state of Kerala, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 95: 123–126.

Gamble JS 1972. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Givinish TI 1976. Leaf form in relation to environment: A theoretical study. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Princeton University. 467pp

Guleria JS 1992. A semi–ring porous fossil wood of Ziziphus from the Late Tertiary of Rajasthan. Palaeobotanist 39: 303–308.

Guleria JS, Srivastava R & Prasad M 2000. Some fossil leaves from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh, North–west India. Himalayan Geology 21: 43–52.

Gupta VJ & Jiwan JS 1972. Plant fossil from the Dharmsala beds of Bilaspur District, H.P. Science & Culture 38: 99.

Hickey LJ 1973. Classification of architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. American Journal of Botany 60: 17–33.

Hooker JD 1872. The flora of British India. 1. Kent.

Hooker JD 1875. The flora of British India. 2. Kent.

Hooker JD 1882. The flora of British India. 3. Kent.

Hooker JD 1884. The flora of British India. 4. Kent

Huzioka K & Takahasi E 1970. The Eocene flora of the Ube Coalfield, south west Honshu, Japan. Journal of the Minning College, Akita University (A) 4: 1–88.

Ishida S 1970. The Noroshi flora of Noto peninsula, central Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University 37: 1–112.

Kanjilal UN 1950. The forest flora of the Siwalik and Jaunsar forest division. U.P. Manager of Publication, Delhi, 558pp.

Khan M & Bera S 2014a. New lauraceous species from the Siwalik forest of Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya and their palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic implications. Turkish Journal of Botany 38: 453–464.

Khan M & Bera S 2014b. On Some Fabaceous fruits from the Siwalik (Middle Miocene–Lower Pleistocene) of Eastern Himalaya. Journal of Geological Society of India 83: 165–174.

Khan M, Ghosh R, Bera S, Spricer RA & Spicer TEV 2010. Floral diversity during Plio-Plistocene siwalik sedimentation (Kimin Formation) Arunachal Pradesh, India and its palaeoclimatic significance. Palaeobio Palaeoenvironment 91: 237-255.

Konomatsu M & Awasthi N 1999. Plant fossils from Arung Khola and Binai Khola Formation of Churia Group (Siwalik), west central Nepal and their palaeoecological and phytogeographical significance. Palaeobotanist 48: 163–181.

Kovach WL & Spicer RA 1996. Canonical correspondence analysis of leaf physiognomy: a contribution to the development of a new palaeoclimatological tool. Palaeoclimates 2: 125–138.

Krishnamurthy T 1993. Minor Forest Products of India, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.

Kulkarni AR & Dalvi NS 1981. Leaf cuticle from lignite beds of the Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. 4th Indian Geophytological Conference, Lucknow (Abst.): 14.

Kumar R, Ghosh SK & Sangode SJ 2003. Mio–Pliocene sedimentation history in the northwestern part of the Himalayan foreland basin, India. Current Science 84: 1006–1113.

Lakhanpal RN 1964. Specific Identification of the guttiferous leaves from the Tertiary of Rajasthan. Palaeobotanist 12: 265–266.

Lakhanpal RN 1968. A new fossil Ficus from the Siwalik beds near Jawalamukhi, Himachal Pradesh. Publication Centenary Advance Study of Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 5: 17–19.

Lakhanpal RN 1969. Fossil Fissistigma from the Lower Siwalik near Jawalamukhi, India. In: Santapau H et al. (Editors)__Journal of Sen. Memorial Volume: 311–312.

Lakhanpal RN 1970. Tertiary flora of India and their bearing on the historical geology of the region. Taxon 19: 675–694.

Lakhanpal RN 1974. Geological history of the Dipterocarpaceae. Symp. Origin Phytogeogr. Angiosperms, B.S.I.P. Publication 1: 3039.

Lakhanpal RN & Awasthi N 1984. A late Tertiary florule from near Bhikhnathoree in west Champaran District, Bihar. In: Sharma AK et al. (Editors)__Proceedings of Symposium on Evolutionary Botany and Biostratigraphy (A.K. Ghosh Vol.), Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Calcutta.

Lakhanpal RN & Awasthi N 1992. New species of Fissistigma and Terminalia from the Siwalik sediments of Balugoloa, Himachal Pradesh. Geophytology 21: 49–52.

Lakhanpal RN & Bose MN 1951. Some Tertiary leaves and fruits of the Guttiferae from Rajasthan. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 30: 132–136.

Lakhanpal RN & Guleria JS 1981. Leaf impressions from the Eocene of the Kachchh, western India. Palaeobotanist 28–29: 353–373.

Lakhanpal RN & Guleria JS 1982. Plant remains from the Miocene of Kachchh, western India. Palaeobotanist 30: 279–296.

Mabberley DJ 1997. The Plant Book. Cambridge.

Mahajan DR & Mahabale TS 1973. Quaternary flora of Maharashtra–I. The Pravera River Basin, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Geophytology 2: 175–177.

Mallet FR 1875. On the geology of Darjeeling District and Western Duars. Memoirs of Geological Survey of India 11: 1–50.

Mathew J & George KV 2013. Artabotrys zeylanicus var. kottavasaliyana (Annonaceae): A new variety from southern Western Ghats. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences (Short Communication) pp. 153–155.

Mathur UB & Mathur AK 1998. A Neogene flora from Bikaner, Rajasthan. Geoscience Journal 19: 129–144.

Mathur AK, Mishra VP & Mehra S 1996. Systematic study of plant fossils from Dagsai, Kasauli and Dharmsala formations of Himachal Pradesh. Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica (New Series) 50: 1–121.

Matin A & Mukul M 2010. Phases of deformation from cross–cutting structural relationships in external thrust sheets: insights from small–scale structures in the Ramgarh thrust sheet, Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal. Current Science 99: 1369–1377.

Mehrotra RC 2000a. Study of plant fossils from the Tura Formation of Nangwalbibra, Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. Palaeobotanist 49: 225–237 .

Mehrotra RC 2000b. Two new fossil fruits from Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. Current Science 79: 1482–1483.

Menzel P 1920. Uber Pflanzen reste aue Basaltluffen des Kamerungebietes. Beitrage Zur geologischen Erforschung der deutschen Schutzgebiete 18: 7–72.

Merrill ED 1923. Distribution of the Dipterocarpaceae. Philipp. Journal of Science 23: 1–32.

Metcalfe CR & Chalk L 1950. Anatomy of dicotyledons. 1 & 2. Oxford.

Mishra VP & Mathur AK 1992. Biostratigraphic studies of the Lower Tertiary Sequence in particular, Dagshai and Kasauli formations of Himachal Pradesh. Record Geological Survey of India 124: 245–248 (Abst).

Mitra S & Banerjee M 2004. Fossil fruit Derrisocarpon miocenicum sp.nov. and leaflet Derrisophyllum siwalicum gen. et sp. nov. cf. Derris trifoliate Lour. of Fabaceae from the Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling foothills, eastern Himalaya, India with remarks on site of origin and distribution of the genus. Phytomorphology 54: 253–263.

Morley RJ 2000. Origin and evolution of tropical rain forests. John Wiley and Sons. Chichester, U.K.

Mosbrugger V & Utescher T 1997. The Coexistence approach–a method for quantitative reconstruction of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossil. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 134: 61–86.

Mukherjee PK 1982. A text book of geology of the World: 364–377.

Muller J 1970. Palynological evidences on early differentiation of angiosperms. Biological Review 45: 415–450.

Muller J 1981. Fossil pollen records of extant angiosperm. Botanical Review 47: 1–42. New York.

Nakayama K & Ulak PD 1999. Evolution of fluvial style in the Siwalik Group in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. Sedimentological Geology 125: 205–224.

Pathak NR 1969. Megafossils from the foothills of Darjeeling District, India. In: Santapau H et al. (Editor)__Journal of Sen Memorial Volume: 379–384. Botanical Society Bengal, Calcutta.

Prain D 1903. Bengal Plants I, London.

Prakash U & Tripathi PP 1992. Floral evolution and climatic changes during the Siwalik Period. Biological Memoir 18: 57–68.

Prasad M 1990a. Fossil flora from the Siwalik sediments of Koilabas, Nepal. Geophytology 19: 79–105.

Prasad M 1990b: Some more leaf impressions from the Lower Siwalik beds of Koilabas, Nepal. Palaeobotanist 37: 299–315.

Prasad M 1993. Leaf impressions of Kayea from the Siwalik sediments (Miocene–Pliocene) of Kalagarh, India. Tertiary Research 14: 107–110.

Prasad M 1994a. Angiospermous leaf remains from the Siwalik sediments of Hardwar, Uttar Pradesh and their bearing on palaeoclimate and phytogeography. Himalayan Geology 15: 83–94.

Prasad M 1994b. Siwalik (Middle–Miocene) woods from the Kalagarh area in the Himalayan foothills and their bearing on palaeoclimate and phytogeography. Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology 76: 49–82.

Prasad M 1994c. Siwalik (Middle–Miocene) leaf impressions from the foothills of the Himalaya, India. Tertiary Research 15: 53–90.

Prasad M 1994d. Morphotaxonomical study on angiospermous plant remains from the foothills of Kathgodam, north India. Phytomorphology 44: 115–126.

Prasad M 1994e. Plant megafossils from the Siwalik sediments of Koilabas, central Himalaya, Nepal and their impact on palaeoenvironment. Palaeobotanist 42: 126–156.

Prasad M 2006. Plant fossils from Siwalik sediments of Himachal Pradesh and their palaeoclimatic significance. Phytomorphology 56: 9–22.

Prasad M 2008. Angiospermous fossil leaves from the Siwalik foreland basins and its palaeoclimatic implications. Palaeobotanist 57: 177–215.

Prasad M 2012. First record of megafossils from Nahan Formation, Himachal Pradesh and their significance. Indian Association of Sedimentologist 31: 105–114.

Prasad M, Antal JS & Tiwari VD 1997. Investigation on plant fossils from Seria Naka in the Himalayan foothills of Uttar Pradesh, India. Palaeobotanist 46: 13–30.

Prasad M, Antal JS, Tripathi PP & Pandey VK 1999. Further contribution to the Siwalik flora from the Koilabas area, western Nepal. Palaeobotanist 48: 49–95.

Prasad M & Awasthi N 1996. Contribution to the Siwalik flora from Surai Khola sequence, western Nepal and its palaeoecological and phytogeographical implications. Palaeobotanist 43: 1–42.

Prasad M & Dwivedi HD 2007. Systematic study on the leaf impressions from the Siwalik (Churia) Formation of Koilabas area, Nepal and their significance. Palaeobotanist 56: 139–154.

Prasad M & Dwivedi HD 2008. Some plant megafossils from the Sub–Himalayan zone (Middle Miocene) of western Nepal. Journal of Palaeontological Society of India 53: 51–64.

Prasad M, Ghosh R & Tripathi PP 2004. Floristics and climate during the Siwalik (Middle Miocene) near Kathgodam in the Himalayan foothills of Uttaranchal, India. Journal of Palaeontological Society of India 49: 35–93.

Prasad M, Panjawani M, Kannaujia AK & Alok 2009. Siwalik fossil leaves from the Himalayan foothills of the Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India and their significance. Proceedings of National Seminar on Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity: Problem and Prospects 29–30 Nov. 2009.

Prasad M & Pandey SM 2008. Plant diversity and climate during Siwalik (Miocene–Pliocene) in the Himalayan foothills of western Nepal. Palaeontographica 278B: 13–70.

Prasad M, Khare EG, Kannaujia AK & Alok 2013. Cuticle bearing fossil leaves from Mio–Pliocene period in the Sub Himalayan zone and its phytogeographical and environmental implications. Journal of Environmental Biology 34: 863–875.

Prasad M, Singh H & Singh SK 2013. Middle Miocene palynoflora from the Lower Siwalik sediments of Darjeeling District, West Bengal and their palaeoenvironmental implications. Himalayan Geology 34: 9–17.

Prasad M, Mohan L & Singh SK 2013. First record of fossil leaves from Siwalik (Upper Miocene) sediments of Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh, India: palaeoclimatic and phytogeographical implications. Palaeobotanist 62: 165–180.

Prasad M, Alok & Kannaujia AK 2014. Siwalik (Middle Miocene) flora of Tanakpur area in the Himalayan foothills of Uttarakhand, India and its palaeoclimatic implications. Palaeontographica (in Press).

Prasad M & Tripathi PP 2000. Plant megafossils from the Siwalik sediments of Bhutan and their climatic significance. Biological Memoirs 26: 6–19.

Puri GS 1947. The occurrence of tropical Fig (Ficus cunia Buch. Ham.) in the Karewa beds at Liddar—marg, Pir Panjal Range, Kashmir with remarks on the subtropical forests of the Kashmir Valley during the Pleistocene. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 26: 131–135.

Puri GS 1948. The flora of the Karewa Series of Kashmir and its Phytogeographical affinities with Chapters on the methods in identification. Indian Foresters 24: 105–122.

Raunkiaer C 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford University Press, 632 pp.

Richards PW 1952. The tropical rain forest: an ecological study. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rowley DB 1996. Age of initiation of collision between India and Asia: a review of stratigraphic data. Earth and Planatary Science Letters 145: 1–13.

Sasaki S 2006. Ecology and Physiology of Dipterocarpaceae. In: Susuki K et al. (Editors)–Plantation Technology in Tropical Forest Science: Springer: 3–22,

Scotese CR, Gahagan LM & Larson RL 1988. Plate tectonic reconstitutions of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic Ocean Basin. Tectonophysics 155: 27–48.

Seward AC 1935. Leaves of dicotyledons from the Nubian sandstone of Egypt. Ministry of Finance Surv. Dept. Egypt: 1–21.

Shashi, Pandey SM & Tripathi PP 2006. Fossil leaf impressions from Siwalik sediments of Himalayan foothills of Uttaranchal, India and their significance. Palaeobotanist 55: 77–87.

Shashi, Pandey SM & Tripathi PP 2007. Siwalik (Middle Miocene) leaf impressions from Tanakpur area, Uttaranchal and their bearing on climate. Geophytology 37: 99–108.

Singh SK & Prasad M 2007. Late Tertiary leaf flora of Mahuadanr Valley, Jharkhand. Journal of Palaeontological Society of India 52: 175–194.

Singh SK & Prasad M 2008. Fossil leaf impression from the late Tertiary sediments of Mahuadanr Valley, Latehar District, Jharkhand, India. Palaeobotanist 57: 479–495.

Singh SK & Prasad M 2010. Late Tertiary flora of Mahuadanr Valley, Latehar District, Jharkhand, India. Geophytology 38: 45–55.

Singh H, Prasad M, Kumar K & Singh SK 2011. Palaeobotanical remains from Palaeocene, Lower Eocene Vagadhkhol Formation, western India and their palaeoclimatic and phytogeographical implication. Palaeoworld 20: 332–356.

Spicer RA, Valdes PJ, Spicer TEV, Craggs HJ, Srivastava G, Mehrotra RC & Yang J 2009. New development is CLAMP: calibration using global gridded meteorological data. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatolgy Palaeoecology 283: 91–98.

Spicer RA, Bera S, De Bera S, Spicer TEV, Srivastava G, Mehrotra N & Yang J 2011. Why do foliar physiognomic climate estimates sometimes differ from those observed ? Insights from taphonomic information loss and a CLAMP case study from the Ganges delta. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 302: 381–395.

Spicer RA, Rees PM & Herman AB 1996. The Cretaceous vegetation and climate of Asia: some insights. Memoir Geological Society of India 37: 405–433. (60%)

Srivastava G & Mehrotra RC 2013. Further contribution to the low latitude leaf assemblage from the late Oligocene sediments of Assam and its phytogeographical significance. Journal of Earth System Science 122: 1341–1357.

Srivastava G, Srivastava R & Mehrotra RC 2011. Ficus palaeoracemosa sp.nov.–a new fossil leaf from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh and its palaeoclimatic significance. Journal of Earth System Science 120: 253–262.

Su T, Xing Y–W, Liu Y–S, Jacques FMB, Chen W–Y, Huang Y–J & Zhou Z–K 2010. Leaf margin analysis: A new equation from humid to mesic forests in China. Palaios 25: 234–238. DOI 10.2110/palo.2009.p09–129r

Su CFY & Saunders RMK 2009. Evolutionary divergence times in the Annonaceae: evidence of a late Miocene origin of Pseuduvaria in Sundaland with subsequent diversification in New Guinea. BMC Evolutionary Biology (Research Article) Page 1 of 19

Tripathi PP, Pandey SM & Prasad M 2002. Angiospermous leaf impressions from Siwalik sediments of the Himalayan foothills near Jarva, U.P. and their bearing on palaeoclimate. Biological Memoire 28: 79–90.

Trivedi TK 1980. Identification of the fossil leaf impressions from Mewar State. Botanique 9: 169–174.

Trivedi BS & Srivastava K 1986. Flacourtioxylon mohgaonense gen. et. sp. nov. from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of Mohgaon Kalan, Chhindwara District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 65: 500–501.

Varma CP 1968. On a collection of leaf–impressions from Hardwar, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Palaeobotanical Society of India 5–9: 92–88.

Velenovsky J 1889. Kvetenaceskcha Cenomanu. Rozpr. Mat. Prir. K. Ceskespol Nauk. 3: 1–75.

Veldkamp JF 2007. The correct name for the Tetrastigma (Vitaceae) host of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) in Malesia and a (not so) new species. Reinwardita 12: 261–265.

Webb IJ 1959. A physiognomic classification of Australian rain forest. Journal Exd. 47: 55–70

Wilf P 1997. When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for Leaf Margin Analysis. Palaeobiology 23: 373–390.

Wilf P, Wing SL, Greenwood DR & Greenwood CL 1998. Using fossil leaves as paleoprecipitation indicators: an Eocene example. Geology 26: 203–206.

Willis JC 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns (8th Edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wing SL & Greenwood DR 1993. Fossils and fossil climate: the case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene. In: Allen JRL, Hoskins BJ, Sellwood BW & Spicer RA (Editors)—Palaeoclimates and their modelling with special reference to the Mesozoic Era. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B. Biological Sciences 341: 243–252.

Wolf JA 1969. Palaeogene flora from the Gulf of Alaska region United State Geological Survey Open file report: 114.

Wolf JA 1979. Temperature parameter of humid to mesic forest of eastern Asia and relation to forests of other regions of the northern hemisphere and Australasia. U S Geological Survey Professional Paper 1106, Washington, DC.

Wolfe JA 1993. A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040: 1–71.

Wolf JA 1995 Palaeoclimatic estimates from Tertiary leaf assemblages. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 23: 119–142.

Yin A 2006. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen as constrained by along–strike variation of structural geometry, exhumation history, and foreland sedimentation. Earth Science Review 76: 1–131.

Yun–Fei D & Li–Xiu G 2007. Sabia lanceolata Colebr., A newly recorded species of Sabiaceae from China. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica. 45: 341–342.




How to Cite

Prasad, M., Kannaujia, A., Alok, & Singh, S. K. (2015). Plant megaflora from the Siwalik (Upper Miocene) of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India and its palaeoclimatic and phytogeographic significance. Journal of Palaeosciences, 64((1-2), 13–94.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>